A trial of over 5000 people located in South Africa has ended because the vaccine failed to show indications that it could prevent HIV, the disease that causes AIDS. South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV in the world.
Failure of the Trial
The drug, also called a jab, is a version of the RV144 vaccine, which showed potential to provide protection when tested in Thailand. This vaccine was developed to work with the most common subtype of the HIV strain found in South Africa.
Preliminary data showed that the differences between those who were given the vaccine versus those who were given a placebo were minimal. There was a total of 123 infections of HIV for those who received the placebo while 129 people were infected when they had been given the vaccine.
The experts were disappointed that the vaccine which had shown promise failed to provide protection from the virus. However, they say they will continue research to find other options. Other research is being conducted on various HIV vaccines with the hope that one will work.
Why Finding a Vaccine is Important
Currently, there exists a drug treatment with medication known as pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP that helps to prevent the infection of HIV to a healthy person. However, this medication needs to be taken on a regular basis. In some cases, it may be prescribed for daily use.
These treatments aren’t available in all countries. Even in the US, PrEP drugs can have serious side effects for those who take the medications. Some of them may have led to bone density loss and kidney failure. The medication would be prescribed to someone who tested negative for HIV but was in a relationship with a person who was HIV-positive or who had AIDS. The medication works to prevent HIV cells from multiplying and becoming full-blown AIDS. They don’t cure AIDS or reverse the HIV infection.
Risks of PrEP Drugs
High dosages of some of these PrEP drugs could lead to bone density loss, which can result in osteoporosis and broken bones. It can also place added stress on the kidneys, which can lead to failure. One of the jobs of the kidneys is to remove excess lactate acid from the bloodstream. If the kidneys can’t do their job adequately, it can cause multiple issues, including nausea and vomiting and difficulty breathing. If not treated quickly, the condition can be fatal.
A vaccine could potentially be a one-time treatment to prevent HIV in those who receive it. It would also be easier to access in other countries where alternative treatments aren’t as readily available and less expensive with one treatment over continuing medication.
While regular testing, abstinence or protected sex and the use of PrEP medications when necessary have reduced the spread of HIV to their loved ones, it hasn’t ended the HIV epidemic. Researchers still hope that the right vaccine will be found, which could mean the end of HIV for people in the US and around the world.
Pfizer Vaccine for COVID Shows Positive Trial Results
Scientists working on what is known as BNT162b1 say the new vaccine shows promise for COVID-19. This vaccine is based on RNA gene technology, which has been deemed to be cutting edge.
Researchers claim that it created a strong immune response in those who participated in the study. The response continued to increase with the second dose and the amount given.
The research trail was led by Pfizer Inc. a pharmaceutical company. RNA is a geneticcode that triggers the immune system when it encounters a virus. Strategies for vaccines that utilize RNA are generally considered to be safe, which helps increase the speed of developing a vaccine.
The trial was a small one of only 45 participants. They were all adults who were determined to be healthy. They were between 18 and 55 years of age. Half of them were given a dose of the vaccine at either a low, medium or high dose. The other half were given a placebo.
Those that received the vaccine showed an immune response with a higher response for those who took the larger dose. A second booster continued to improvethe immune system.
It was also noted that participants tolerated the vaccine relatively well. They did notice soreness where the vaccine was injected. Participants reported headache, fatigue, fever and issues with sleeping which all cleared up within a week after being vaccinated.
Scientists look at this study as good news for battling the coronavirus. However, a phase 3 trial will be necessary, which will test the vaccine on a larger population to determine its true effectiveness as well as safety and preferred dosage. The study showed a higher number of antibodies for those participants even than what peoplewho are recovering from the virus have. However, the phase 3 trial will show how effective the vaccine will be in real life when a vaccinated person is in contact with the virus.
Numerous Vaccines in Trials
There are dozens of vaccines in various stages of the trials. Phase 1 and 2 are the early stages with testing on limited participants. Phase 3 is the final stage and features a much larger trial to determine safety. This trial can take several months, and the information must be presented before the US Food and Drug Administration will approve it for use on the general population.
Many drugs make it through the first two trials only to have poor results in phase 3. While this information for the Pfizer vaccine shows promise, the average patient won’t even know if it will be available for the general public for some time. Once it is approved, the manufacturer will have to develop large quantities of the vaccine to
provide to the population. Best estimates are still sometime in 2021 before there is a vaccine available to prevent COVID-19. Until then, other precautions are recommended to reduce the spread and fatalities for the coronavirus. Updates on this and other vaccines will be provided as the research team continues through theprocess.
Metformin as Potential Protector from COVID-19
Metformin is a common medication given to people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This group also happens to be considered high-risk for the coronavirus. Studies indicate the medication may help protect the vulnerable diabetics patients from some of the most severe symptoms of COVID-19 and reduce the number of fatalities.
COVID-19 Benefits Possible
A study was conducted by a doctor at the Hugh Kaul Precision Medicine Institute at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The results have been published online but not reviewed by peers yet.
According to the researchers who reviewed information from over 600 patients, metformin was linked to almost 70 percent reduction in deaths for those who were diagnosed with diabetes and COVID-19. This information coincides with data from four other studies. That data was published in Diabetes and Metabolism.
Researchers suggest that metformin may have anti-inflammatory effects to go along with its ability to lower glucose levels. However, they do advise caution in reading too much into the data unless random controlled trials can be conducted.
According to experts, patients who take metformin tend to have better results in many situations. What hasn’t been determined if the medication can be called a miracle drug or if the people taking it are generally in better health and have no issues with use. They say there isn’t enough data to recommend metformin for use against COVID-19 at this time.
Possible Positive Results for the Study
In the Alabama study, 40 percent of the more than 600 patients were diagnosed with diabetes. Patients with diabetes were accountable for more than 60 percent of the deaths reported in this group. Independent predictors of death for the group included being diabetic, make and between the ages of 50 and 70. A total of 42 patients with diabetes died, and 18 of them had not used metformin. This means that 34 had used the drug, which led to an 11 percent mortality rate for metformin users. This percentage is comparable to the general population rather than the 23 percent rate for diabetics who didn’t take the drug.
Survival rate was determined after removing those with chronic kidney disease, heart failure and other contraindications. Critics of the study suggest that other factors can also impact the change in mortality rate. It can be assumed that control of glucose levels and body weight as well as a reduction in inflammation and other health improvements could also have a positive influence on the survival of the patient with COVID-19.
There are risks for diabetics who take metformin, particularly the increase in risk for lactic acidosis, which can lead to failure of multiple organs. It is unlikely that trials will be conducted to prove the benefits of metformin because pharmaceutical companies aren’t interested in studying a medication that is out of patent and no longer expensive. While these small studies may indicate potential benefits of taking metformin, it is unlikely to be substantiated with larger trials. Patients should only take the medication if it is effective for their condition, according to experts.
Antibiotics May Cause IBD
A new study shows that antibiotic use for children may cause irritable bowel syndrome as adults. This study was conducted by Rutgers University and uses the correlation between young animals and their health later in life.
According to the results from the study, even short-term use of antibiotics by those under one year of age may increase the risk for developing IBD as adults. Giving infants antibiotics may cause a disruption of intestinal microbiota or the good bacteria that grows in the stomach. It helps the immune system to grow healthy and prevents diseases.
The study results strengthen the idea that antibiotic use in young children can not only prevent healthy development but it can play a part in future disease development. The study used mice which were given dextran sulfate sodium, which is a chemical known to cause problems with the colon. Some of the mice had received antibiotics while others had the normal microbial contents transplanted in the system.
The mice that received the antibiotics had more colitis and an altered response from the immune system. This study adds evidence to a hypothesis that when something disrupts the early development of microbiome, it can lead to a modern epidemic.
Researchers believe antibiotic use early in life may also contribute to type 1 diabetes later in life. It is well-known that antibiotics are designed to kill bacteria. Unfortunately, they cannot recognize the difference between good and bad bacteria, which means the medications may do harm as well as good to patients.
The Purpose of Microbiota
The human body has trillions of cells that form the microbiota in the system, which is primarily found in the intestines and stomach. These organisms are present from birth. Research indicates they make up about 4 pounds in the intestinal tract, and the mix is unique to each person.
Scientists who have studied microbiota believe that it has a major impact on how a person is able to fight off illness and disease and the way they digest food. It can even impact mood and psychological patterns.
Microbiota have been linked to many diseases, including the following:
- Heart disease
- Multiple sclerosis
In essence, the microbiota has an impact on nutrition, disease, behavior and immunity. When it is altered, it can change the way a person responds in any of these four areas.
The microbes in the gastrointestinal tract help break down nutrients in foods. For example, meat and vegetables cannot be broken down without the aid of these microbes. People wouldn’t get any nutritional value from many of the foods they eat without these little organisms.
They may also impact cravings for food and the ability to feel full after eating. Research has also shown that microbiota is more diverse in people who eat more variations in food rather than those who eat the same types of food all the time.
Further research is necessary to determine the full impact of antibiotics on the microbiota, but it could have a negative impact on people’s overall health.
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