Some scientific studies indicate that current vaccines may have an impact against the coronavirus. However, other experts say that the research doesn’t provide positive proof.
It is known that some vaccines provide broader protection against illnesses than what they were originally intended for. Though they may target one type of infection or illness, they may be beneficial against other medical concerns. Some scientists are now turning to these vaccines to see if they can have an impact on the coronavirus as they wait for a new vaccine to be developed.
The vaccines for tuberculosis and polio have shown indications that they may work with the immune system to help it respond to other infections. The infections that respond include those from viruses, bacteria and parasites.
A study that has been conducted on those who have been vaccinated for childhood illnesses, such as polio, measles, mumps, and rubella as well as people who had the flu vaccine. Researchers suggest that they may have a lower infection rate for coronavirus than those who haven’t been vaccinated.
Other experts are skeptical about the findings. The paper done on the study showed that the information came from electronic health records. However, it hasn’t gone through the normal peer review process. It also hasn’t been accepted by any medical journals.
Even the critics agree that the study does provide a hypothesis that could be further investigated. At the same time, they caution that the information doesn’t prove a cause and effect situation.
Findings of the Study
The study utilized immunization records from more than 137,000 patients. They had all been tested for the coronavirus. The researchers divided them into groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated. Research showed that patients who had a lower infection rate had either been vaccinated against childhood diseases or had recently received a flu vaccine.
The amount of risk reduction would vary based on which vaccines they had received and how recently they occurred. From the research, it appeared that those who had been vaccinated as children had a lower rate of infection from the coronavirus than those who had received a flu vaccine more recently.
Researchers went to great lengths to account for any variables between the patients, such as age, ethnicity and geographical location. Some critics suggest that the efforts weren’t strong enough. According to the researchers for this study, they are testing the belief that the memory of the immune system is stimulated by a vaccine.
One significant finding in the study was that black patients who had been given the pneumonia vaccine five years earlier had a dramatically lower risk of a positive COVID-19 test than those who hadn’t gotten the vaccine.
Some scientists admit there is plenty of evidence that vaccines can have a positive impact on illnesses beyond what they were designed for. However, they are hesitant to support the findings of the study. They do admit this is a place to begin conducting further research to determine if a current vaccine could be the answer to the coronavirus.
Moderna Seeks Emergency Approval for COVID Vaccine
Moderna has completed phase 3 of a study on a COVID-19 vaccine. It was found to be over 94 percent effective for 30,000 participants. Based on the data from this study, Moderna plans to file what is known as an emergency use authorization or EUA with the Food and Drug Administration.
Of those in the vaccinated group, only 11 people tested positive for COVID-19 after taking the vaccine compared to 185 participants who were in the placebo group. Moderna also made the announcement that the vaccine prevented more serious cases of COVID-19. The 30 severe infections were found in the placebo group.
The FDA will review the data on safety and efficacy from Moderna at its VRBPAC meeting (Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee), which is currently scheduled to be held on December 17.
According to a spokesperson with Moderna, the data confirms the ability of the vaccine to prevent COVID-19, especially severe cases. The goal of the vaccine is to prevent severe outbreaks of the disease as well as hospitalizations and death in those who contract the virus.
The efficacy of the vaccine was consistent in groups based on gender, age and ethnicity. The Modern trial included people who were over 65 years of age as well as participants from 42 communities, such as Hispanics, Asian Americans and African Americans. There were also participants who were multiracial.
No Concerns Over Safety
According to data from Moderna, participants tolerated the vaccine well with no serious concerns identified. The most common issues noted included fatigue, pain at the site of the injection, headaches, redness at the site, myalgia, and arthralgia. The frequency of the complaints increased in frequency and severity after the second dose of the vaccine were given. The only COVID-19 related death in the study came from the participants in the placebo group.
If the vaccine is approved by the FDA, Moderna has said it can have about 20 million doses ready to ship in the US by the end of 2020. It expects to manufacture between 500 million and 1 billion doses for around the world in 2021. Moderna is seeking approval from other organizations globally. It will be the second company to request an EUA with the FDA for a vaccine with Pfizer being the first.
As a vaccine reaches approval, the government will likely determine how it will be divided up. Some experts suggest the vaccine will go the states with the highest populations. It has also been suggested that a separate vaccine will be necessary for children and this first one approved will be for the adult population.
As more cities initiate greater restrictions and even lockdowns or stay-at-home orders, the need for a vaccine becomes more apparent. The fact that two such vaccines are close to being ready for use provides welcome news to the medical industry as well as the general population, especially as the holidays approach and flu season continues to be a concern.
Pfizer Vaccine for COVID Shows Positive Trial Results
Scientists working on what is known as BNT162b1 say the new vaccine shows promise for COVID-19. This vaccine is based on RNA gene technology, which has been deemed to be cutting edge.
Researchers claim that it created a strong immune response in those who participated in the study. The response continued to increase with the second dose and the amount given.
The research trail was led by Pfizer Inc. a pharmaceutical company. RNA is a geneticcode that triggers the immune system when it encounters a virus. Strategies for vaccines that utilize RNA are generally considered to be safe, which helps increase the speed of developing a vaccine.
The trial was a small one of only 45 participants. They were all adults who were determined to be healthy. They were between 18 and 55 years of age. Half of them were given a dose of the vaccine at either a low, medium or high dose. The other half were given a placebo.
Those that received the vaccine showed an immune response with a higher response for those who took the larger dose. A second booster continued to improvethe immune system.
It was also noted that participants tolerated the vaccine relatively well. They did notice soreness where the vaccine was injected. Participants reported headache, fatigue, fever and issues with sleeping which all cleared up within a week after being vaccinated.
Scientists look at this study as good news for battling the coronavirus. However, a phase 3 trial will be necessary, which will test the vaccine on a larger population to determine its true effectiveness as well as safety and preferred dosage. The study showed a higher number of antibodies for those participants even than what peoplewho are recovering from the virus have. However, the phase 3 trial will show how effective the vaccine will be in real life when a vaccinated person is in contact with the virus.
Numerous Vaccines in Trials
There are dozens of vaccines in various stages of the trials. Phase 1 and 2 are the early stages with testing on limited participants. Phase 3 is the final stage and features a much larger trial to determine safety. This trial can take several months, and the information must be presented before the US Food and Drug Administration will approve it for use on the general population.
Many drugs make it through the first two trials only to have poor results in phase 3. While this information for the Pfizer vaccine shows promise, the average patient won’t even know if it will be available for the general public for some time. Once it is approved, the manufacturer will have to develop large quantities of the vaccine to
provide to the population. Best estimates are still sometime in 2021 before there is a vaccine available to prevent COVID-19. Until then, other precautions are recommended to reduce the spread and fatalities for the coronavirus. Updates on this and other vaccines will be provided as the research team continues through theprocess.
Metformin as Potential Protector from COVID-19
Metformin is a common medication given to people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This group also happens to be considered high-risk for the coronavirus. Studies indicate the medication may help protect the vulnerable diabetics patients from some of the most severe symptoms of COVID-19 and reduce the number of fatalities.
COVID-19 Benefits Possible
A study was conducted by a doctor at the Hugh Kaul Precision Medicine Institute at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The results have been published online but not reviewed by peers yet.
According to the researchers who reviewed information from over 600 patients, metformin was linked to almost 70 percent reduction in deaths for those who were diagnosed with diabetes and COVID-19. This information coincides with data from four other studies. That data was published in Diabetes and Metabolism.
Researchers suggest that metformin may have anti-inflammatory effects to go along with its ability to lower glucose levels. However, they do advise caution in reading too much into the data unless random controlled trials can be conducted.
According to experts, patients who take metformin tend to have better results in many situations. What hasn’t been determined if the medication can be called a miracle drug or if the people taking it are generally in better health and have no issues with use. They say there isn’t enough data to recommend metformin for use against COVID-19 at this time.
Possible Positive Results for the Study
In the Alabama study, 40 percent of the more than 600 patients were diagnosed with diabetes. Patients with diabetes were accountable for more than 60 percent of the deaths reported in this group. Independent predictors of death for the group included being diabetic, make and between the ages of 50 and 70. A total of 42 patients with diabetes died, and 18 of them had not used metformin. This means that 34 had used the drug, which led to an 11 percent mortality rate for metformin users. This percentage is comparable to the general population rather than the 23 percent rate for diabetics who didn’t take the drug.
Survival rate was determined after removing those with chronic kidney disease, heart failure and other contraindications. Critics of the study suggest that other factors can also impact the change in mortality rate. It can be assumed that control of glucose levels and body weight as well as a reduction in inflammation and other health improvements could also have a positive influence on the survival of the patient with COVID-19.
There are risks for diabetics who take metformin, particularly the increase in risk for lactic acidosis, which can lead to failure of multiple organs. It is unlikely that trials will be conducted to prove the benefits of metformin because pharmaceutical companies aren’t interested in studying a medication that is out of patent and no longer expensive. While these small studies may indicate potential benefits of taking metformin, it is unlikely to be substantiated with larger trials. Patients should only take the medication if it is effective for their condition, according to experts.
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